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Magawo Oopsa - North America

NTHAWI: 2019-07-23 MITU YA NKHANI: 21

Kukhazikitsa zida zamagetsi mumlengalenga ndi mpweya woyaka kapena nthunzi, zakumwa zoyaka, fumbi loyaka moto, ulusi wosayakika kapena kuwuluka kumayimira chiopsezo chamoto ndi kuphulika.

Madera omwe atha kukhala pachiwopsezo cha moto kapena kuphulika chifukwa chakuphulika kwa mlengalenga ndi / kapena zosakaniza - amatchedwa malo owopsa (kapena amagawidwa) kapena madera. Maderawa ali ku North America (United States ndi Canada) omwe amadziwika kuti ndi Class / Division. Ku Europe ndi padziko lonse lapansi - komanso ku North America - njira ya Zone imagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Dongosolo loopsa lachigawo limakhazikitsa njira zotetezera ndi njira zamagetsi zamagetsi pamalo.  

Kalasi / Gawo Lamagawo

Dongosolo la Kalasi / Gawo / Gulu limakhazikitsidwa ndi Article 500 ya National Electrical Code (NEC) komwe

Makalasi - amatanthauzira mtundu wa zinthu zoopsa zomwe zili mozungulira

Magawano - amatanthauzira kuthekera kwa zinthu zoopsa kupezeka mumlengalenga

Magulu - amatanthauzira mtundu wa zinthu zoopsa mumlengalenga

Maphunziro

Kalasi imafotokoza chilengedwe chonse (kapena katundu) wa zinthu zowopsa mumlengalenga.

Maphunziro

Chikhalidwe Cha Zinthu Zoopsa

Kalasi I

Zowopsa chifukwa mpweya woyaka moto kapena nthunzi zilipo (kapena zitha kupezeka) zochuluka zokwanira kupanga zosakanikirana kapena zopsereza.

Kalasi yachiwiri

Zowopsa chifukwa mafumbi oyaka kapena opezekera amapezeka (kapena atha kukhalapo) mokwanira okwanira kupanga zosakanikirana kapena zopsereza.

Kalasi III

Zowopsa chifukwa ulusi wonyezimira kapena kuwuluka kulipo (kapena kungakhalepo) mu kuchuluka kokwanira kupanga zosakanikirana kapena zowotchera.

Division

Gawoli limatanthauzira kuthekera kwa zinthu zoopsa zomwe zikupezeka munthawi yoyandikira.

Division

Kutheka kwa Zinthu Zowopsa

Gawo 1

Zomwe zimatchulidwa mkalasi zimakhala ndi mwayi wopanga zosakaniza kapena zopsereza chifukwa zimakhalapo mosalekeza, mosasintha, kapena kwakanthawi kapena kuchokera
zida zomwezo pansi pazoyenera.

Gawo 2

Katundu yemwe amatchulidwa mkalasi amakhala ndi mwayi wambiri wopanga chosakanikirana kapena chowotcha ndipo amapezeka pokhapokha ngati zinthu sizili bwino kwa kanthawi kochepa - monga kulephera kwa chidebe kapena kuwonongeka kwa makina

gulu

Gulu limatanthauzira mtundu wa zinthu zoopsa mumlengalenga.

gulu

Mtundu wa Zinthu Zowopsa

Gulu A

Malo okhala ndi acetylene.

Gulu B

Mpweya wokhala ndi mpweya woyaka, madzi oyaka amatulutsa nthunzi, kapena madzi oyaka amatulutsa nthunzi wosakanikirana ndi mpweya womwe ungatenthe kapena kuphulika, wokhala ndi MESG (Maximum Experimental Safe Gap)1) mtengo wochepera kapena wofanana ndi 0.45 mm kapena MIC (Posachepera Poyatsira Pompano)2) chiŵerengero chocheperako kapena chofanana ndi 0.40 - monga haidrojeni kapena mafuta ndi njira zoyaka zomwe zili ndi 30% ya hydrogen voliyumu - kapena mpweya woopsa wofanana ndi butadiene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide ndi acrolein.

Gulu C

Mlengalenga wokhala ndi mpweya woyaka, madzi oyaka amatulutsa nthunzi kapena nthunzi yotentha yamadzi yomwe MESG imaposa 0.75 mm kapena MIC ratio ndiyoposa 0.40 komanso yochepera 0.80 - monga carbon monoxide, ether, hydrogen sulfide, morphline, cyclopropane , ethyl, isoprene, acetaldhyde ndi ethylene kapena mpweya woopsa wofanana.

Gulu D

Mlengalenga wokhala ndi mpweya woyaka, madzi oyaka amatulutsa nthunzi, kapena madzi oyaka amatulutsa nthunzi yosakanikirana ndi mpweya womwe ungatenthe kapena kuphulika, wokhala ndi MESG mtengo woposa 0.75 mm kapena chiŵerengero cha MIC choposa 0.80 - monga mafuta, acetone, ammonia, benzene , butane, ethanol, hexane, methanol, methane, vinyl chloride, gasi lachilengedwe, naphtha, propane kapena mpweya woopsa wofanana.

Gulu E

Malo okhala ndi zotentha zazitsulo zoyaka, kuphatikiza zotayidwa, magnesium, bronze, chromium, titaniyamu, zinc ndi alloys awo ogulitsa kapena ziphuphu zina zoyaka zomwe tinthu tating'onoting'ono tawo, abrasiveness ndi mayendedwe ake amakhala ndi zoopsa zofananira ndi zida zamagetsi.

Gulu F

Malo okhala ndi fumbi lokhala ndi mpweya wambiri, wakuda wakuda, wakuda wakuda, makala, malasha kapena ma coke omwe ali ndi zopitilira 8% zathunthu zomwe zalowetsedwa ndi zinthu zina kotero zimabweretsa chiopsezo chakuphulika.

Gulu G

Malo okhala ndi fumbi loyaka moto lomwe silinaphatikizidwe mgulu la E & F - monga ufa, tirigu, wowuma, shuga, nkhuni, mapulasitiki ndi mankhwala.

1) MESG (Maximum Experimental Safe Gap) - Chilolezo pakati pa malo awiri ofanana achitsulo omwe amapezeka pamayeso oyeserera kuti aphulitse kuphulika m'chipinda choyeserera kufalikira kuchipinda chachiwiri chomwe chili ndi mpweya kapena nthunzi yomweyo ndende.


2) MIC (Posachepera Poyatsira Pompano) Ratio - The ratio of the minimum current required from a inductive spark discharge to ignite the most easily ignifying gas of gas or vapor, ogawa ndi osachepera pano ofunikira kuchokera kutulutsa komwe kumayatsa kuti ayatse methane pansi zinthu zomwezo zoyesa.


Magulu A, B, C, ndi D ndi amagetsi (Gulu I lokha). Magulu E, F, ndi G ndi a fumbi ndi kuwuluka (Class II kapena III).

Zipangizo zowopsa mgulu lililonse komanso kutentha kwake kumatha kupezeka mu Article 500 ya National Electrical Code komanso ku NFPA 497.


Malo Amayendedwe

Dongosolo la Zone limakhazikitsidwa ndi Article 505/506 ya National Electrical Code (NEC) ndikutsatira njira yapadziko lonse lapansi yamagawo monga momwe International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) idakhazikitsa.

Zigawo - zimatanthauzira chilengedwe chonse (kapena katundu) wa zinthu zowopsa - ngati mpweya wake kapena fumbi, komanso kuthekera kwa zinthu zoopsa mumlengalenga

· Magulu - amatanthauzira mtundu wa zinthu zoopsa komanso (mwina) malo ozungulira


Zone

Malo amatanthauzira chilengedwe chonse - ngati ndi mpweya kapena fumbi - komanso kuthekera kwa zinthu zoopsa kupezeka m'malo ozungulira ozungulira. Makina a Zone ali ndi magawo atatu owopsa a gasi kapena fumbi pomwe Gawo la magawo awiri.

Mpweya, nthunzi ndi nkhungu

Article 505 National Electrical Code (NEC)

Zone

Chilengedwe ndi Kuthekera kwa Zinthu Zowopsa

Zone 0

Magulu oyaka moto kapena nthunzi zomwe zimakhalapo mosalekeza kapena kwa nthawi yayitali.

Zone 1

Magulu oyaka moto kapena nthunzi zomwe zimatha kuchitika mosavuta.

Zone 2

Magulu oyaka moto kapena nthunzi zomwe sizingachitike pokhapokha ngati zikuchitika kwakanthawi kochepa.

Fumbi

Article 506 National Electrical Code (NEC)

Zone

Chilengedwe ndi Kuthekera kwa Zinthu Zowopsa

Zone 20

Dera lomwe phulusa loyaka moto kapena ulusi woyaka moto ndi kuuluka kumakhalapo mosalekeza kapena kwanthawi yayitali.

Zone 21

Dera lomwe phulusa loyaka moto kapena ulusi wosayakika komanso zowuluka zitha kuchitika munthawi yoyenera.

Zone 22

Dera lomwe phulusa loyaka moto kapena ulusi woyaka moto ndi zowuluka sizingachitike pokhapokha ngati zinthu zikuyenda bwino ndipo zimangochitika kwakanthawi kochepa.

Zigawo zikufanizira ndimakalasi ndi magawano mu Class / Division system.


gulu

Gulu limafotokozera mtundu wazinthu zowopsa komanso (mwina) malo ozungulira. Gulu lagawidwa m'magulu atatu momwe Gulu I lasungidwira malo amigodi. Gulu II ndi la mpweya wophulika (Zone 0, 1 ndi 2) ndipo Gulu Lachitatu ndi lafumbi lophulika (Zone 20, 21 ndi 22).

gulu

Mtundu Wazinthu Zowopsa ndi Malo Awo

Gulu I


Mines
atengeke ndi moto (kusanganikirana kwa mpweya wosachedwa kuchitika mgodi).

Gulu II


Gasi lophulika
mlengalenga kupatula migodi yomwe ingayambitsidwe. Zipangizo za Gulu II zidagawika m'magulu atatu.


A

Malo okhala ndi propane, acetone, benzene, butane, methane, petulo, hexane, zosungunulira utoto kapena mpweya ndi nthunzi za ngozi yomweyo.


B

Malo okhala ndi ethylene, propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, butadiene, cyclopropane, ethyl ether, kapena mpweya ndi nthunzi za ngozi yomweyo.


C

Malo okhala ndi acetylene, hydrogen, carbon disulphide kapena mpweya ndi nthunzi zowopsa zofananira.

Gulu III


Fumbi lophulika 
mlengalenga. Zipangizo za Gulu Lachitatu zimagawika m'magulu atatu.


A

Mlengalenga momwe muli kuwuluka kosayaka.


B

Malo okhala ndi fumbi losakhazikika.


C

Malo okhala ndi fumbi lokhazikika.

Chitsanzo - Gawo Loyipa

Chipinda chokhala ndi gasi yama propane chimasankhidwa ndi

· Kalasi / Gawo dongosolo monga: Kalasi Woyamba, Gawo 2, Gulu D.

· Dongosolo la Zone monga: Zone 2, Gulu IIA


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